Course Syllabus

AP Biology Re-design:  Syllabus

Teacher:

School:

 

Course Overview:

 

Advanced Placement Biology is intended to provide an intensive study of selected topics for those junior or senior students planning on a biologically related field of study in college.  The course content is organized around the four big ideas, enduring understandings, and science practices.  The eight units of study are: Ecology, Biochemistry, Cells, Enzymes and Metabolism, Molecular Genetics, Heredity, Evolution, and Plant and Animal Structure and Function.  Class will be conducted at the college level and students are expected to work accordingly.  The first 3 days of each week meet for extended time (72 minutes), with the remaining days meeting for the regular class periods of 52 minutes.  Students will be expected to come to class prepared and on time.  The overall success of the program depends in large part, on each student meeting their own responsibilities, with a significant portion of the course content covered independently by the student.  Students will document their course work in the form of a well organized lecture and laboratory notebook that will be graded at the end of each quarter.  Students will also be required to write a scientific paper each quarter (portfolio for the fourth quarter), and prepare presentations, work with Excel ®spreadsheets, Lab Quest® with probes and computers with probes. 

A comprehensive exam with lab practical will be given each semester, including a combination of objective and essay questions.  All unit examinations are multiple-choice with a topic related essay question.  Students are required to take the AP examination (school will pay examination cost) and attend all classes.

Instructional Context:

 

Students enrolled in AP Biology must have completed “BSCS Green” or “Blue” biology and have completed or are taking concurrently chemistry.  The summer review packet is voluntary not mandatory, and is a review of unit one material.  This assignment is intended to get the student ahead in the readings before the start of a very busy school year.

 

Instructional Resources Students:

 

  • Reece, Jane, et al., Campbell Biology, 9th Edition, 2011, Pearson Benjamin

Cummings. [CR1]

  • Taylor, Martha.  Study Guide Campbell Biology, Ninth Addition, 2011, Pearson Education.

  • <www.campbellbiology.com> Online text.

  • AP Biology Investigative Labs:  An Inquiry –Based Approach. 2012, The College Board.

 

Instructional Resources Teacher:

 

  • Giffen, Cynthia and Heitz, Jean. Practicing Biology (to accompany Campbell-

Reece Biology), 3rd Edition, 2008, Pearson Benjamin Cummings.

  • <www.campbellbiology.com>

  • Instructor Resourses, Campbell Biology, ninth edition.

  • Masterman, David and Redding, Kelly. Advanced Biology with Vernier, Experiments for AP and College Biology.  2008, Vernier Software and Technology.

  • Gillen, Christopher, and Buskirk, Ruth. Inquiry in Action, Interpreting Scientific Papers. 2011, Pearson Education.

  • Stanley, Ethel and Waterman, Margaret.  Biological Inquiry, A Workbook of Investigative Cases. 2011, Pearson Education.

  • Andrews, Sherri.  Advanced Placement Biology Inquiry-Based Lab Manual. 2000 Carolina Biological Supply Company.

  • AP Biology Lab Manual for Students, 1999, College Board.

  • Carter Brown, M., Morgan, J.  Investigating Biology Lab Manual, 5th ed. 2005.

 

Advanced Placement Biology Content:

 

This Advanced Placement Biology course is structured around the four big ideas, the enduring

understandings within the big ideas and the essential knowledge within the

enduring understanding. [CR2]

 

The big ideas:

Big idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

Big idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to

grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

Big idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information

essential to life processes.

Big idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions

possess complex properties.

The Investigative Laboratory Component:

 

More than 34 percent of the course is investigative laboratory work integrated throughout the units, focusing on the big ideas and seven science practices established by the College Board (25 percent is the minimum for the College Board). [CR7]  Students will conduct a minimum of two inquiry-based labs per big idea with additional supplemental labs and activities to support the biological concepts.[CR6]   Laboratory will include independent research (developing procedures and executing experiments through inquiry ), selected College Board labs, and a comparative study through the dissections of vertebrate and invertebrate animals.  Comparisons of plant and animal form and function will be examined, and the process of evolution driving the diversity and unity of life will be emphasized.  Some labs will include the use of Labquestâ, Smartboard®, or laptop computer and Vernier® probe technology, and laboratory data will be processed using the department laptop computers and Excel® spreadsheets. .[CR8]    All aspects of the course focus on integrating observed data and relating this information to our society, and the interactions that we have with the Earth. [CR5] All levels of inquiry will be used and all seven science practices will be infused in our discovery.

 

Science Practices (SP)

1. The student can use representations and models to communicate scientific

phenomena and solve scientific problems.

2. The student can use mathematics appropriately.

3. The student can engage in scientific questioning to extend thinking or to guide

investigations within the context of the AP course.

4. The student can plan and implement data collection strategies appropriate to a

particular scientific question.

5. The student can perform data analysis and evaluation of evidence.

6. The student can work with scientific explanations and theories.

7. The student is able to connect and relate knowledge across various scales,

concepts and representations in and across domains.

 

Scientific paper and portfolio: 

 

A scientific paper will be written each of the first three quarters, and a portfolio the fourth quarter.  The scientific paper will follow the general format used for a research report published in a scientific journal.  The paper will reflect the basic scientific method of asking a question, formulating a hypothesis, conducting experiments to test the hypothesis, and interpreting the results.  Sections will include an abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results (data tables and graphs), discussion, conclusion and works cited.  These papers will make connections between our work in laboratory and the world around us, using science as a process skill.  Each paper will have a point value equivalent to two test grades.  The portfolio will be a compilation of your best work, prepared for review at the end of your organized course notebook.  The four sections are as follows: application, investigation, research entry, and open choice.  A rubric will be used to grade your answers to questions and will evaluate you on depth of understanding, evidence of inquiry, communication, and relevance to society.  The objective of the portfolio is to reflect upon the concepts that we have discussed throughout the year, bringing together the common threads of biology with the theme of evolution, and how science, technology and our society are dependent upon one another.[CR5]  The portfolio will have a point value equivalent to one test grade.[CR8]  

Units of Instruction

 

Unit 1: Introduction (expectations, new design, science as a process) and Ecology.

 

Big ideas: 1,2,3,4 [CR 2]

Connected to enduring understandings:

  • 1A:  A change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.

  • 2A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

  • 2D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.

  • 2E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

  • 3E: Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.

  • 4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

  • 4B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

  • 4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

 

Chapters: 51-Animal Behavior, 52-An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere, 53-Population Ecology, 54-Comminuty Ecology, 55-Ecosystmes and Restoration Ecology, 56-Conservation Biology and Global Change.

 

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students begin the course with an overview of science as a process. The scientific method is reviewed using the following site: http://www.gccaz.edu/biology/glacier/scientific_method/index.swf (sp 1, 7)  

  • 2.  Students will become familiar with lab technique, by measuring the productivity of lake water in Lab Twelve Dissolved Oxygen and Aquatic Primary Productivity, and pre-lab.  The Hach water treatment method will be used and gross and net productivity will be calculated under different treatments (sp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7)  ) [CR3d] [CR7]

  • 3.  The “Fertilizer Design It” lab will follow using skills from the DO lab through scientific inquiry.  A question is posed and students design and execute a laboratory investigation to answer the question “How does fertilizer runoff effect the primary productivity of a body of water?”  Productivity is again measured and calculated using  the Hach® water treatment method. (sp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) [CR3d][CR5][CR6]

  • 4.  In the “Obituary” activity students collect data from obituaries to create survivorships curves for a sample of 100 individuals.  Mortality rates and aged based/sex-based ratios are calculated and graphed (sp 1,2,5,7).  [CR 4d]

  • 5.  Interpreting a Scientific Paper, Inquiry Figure 56.13:  What Caused the Drastic Decline of the Illinois Greater Prairie Chicken Population? Article 7.  Students will read and interpret this scientific journal article in small group/class discussion. This is a great introduction into scientific papers as your first paper will be written this quarter.[CR4a]

  • 5.  Students will investigate the concepts of taxis and kinesis through inquiry in the “Behavior Design It (modification of lab 11)” lab, using pill bugs (sp 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7). [CR 3c]

  • 6.  Students will also complete Investigation 12 Fruit Fly Behavior (new). Students will compare the behaviors of the fruit fly to the pill bug through inquiry (sp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7). [CR6] [CR7]Supports Big Idea 4

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments: Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, scientific paper from inquiry lab (either fertilizer, pill bug, or fruit fly lab), organized notebook, lab reports, case study. [CR7][CR8]

 

Unit 2: BIOCHEMISTRY

 

Big ideas: 2,4 [CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

 

  • 2A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

  • 4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

  • 4B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

  • 4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Chapters: 3-Water and Life, 4-Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life, 5-The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules.

 

 

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students will complete an old AP exam water essay question.  Class discussion will follow and we will also discuss the rubric as a class.

  • 2.  Students will watch live demonstrations on cohesion, adhesion, capillary action and surface tension. Class discussion will center around how these properties can be explained/applied in the living world.(sp 7)

  • 3.  Students will use their knowledge of the characteristics of carbohydrates to differentiate between fructose, sucrose, glucose, starch and water as unknowns, using indicator tests in “Testing For Unknown Carbohydrate Lab.” (sp 1, 3, 4, 5) [CR3b]

  • 4.  Students will create a 3-D model of a cell membrane identifying various components and describe it to the class. (sp 1,7) [CR4b]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments: Organic chemistry quizzes (summative and formative), unit test w/essay, formative water essay using grading rubric, organized notebook, lab report, and finished model. [CR7] [CR8]

 

Unit 3: Cells

 

Big ideas: 2, 3, 4[CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

 

  • 2A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

  • 2B: Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from external environments.

  • 2E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

  • 3A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

  • 3B: Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.

  • 3C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

  • 3D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.

  • 4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

  • 4B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

Chapters: 6-A Tour of the Cell, 7-Membrane Structure and Function, 11-Cell Communication, 12-The Cell Cycle, 19-Viruses, 27-Bacteria and Archaea

 

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students will calculate the area and volume of different size cells in the “Modeling Limits to Cell Size” activity.  This exercise leads to the cell races design challenge. (sp 1, 2, 4, 5, 7) [CR4b]

  • 2.  Students are given a block of agar and must create the ultimate diffusing cell in “Off to the Cell Races Design Challenge.” The cell with the highest ratio of mass divided by time wins. (sp 1, 3, 6, 7) [CR3b]

  • 3. Students will make models of cells and observe changes in living cells in Investigation 4 Diffusion and Osmosis (new). (sp 2, 4, 5,) [CR3b] [CR6] Supports Big Idea 2

  • 4.  Through inquiry students will design a model cell using dialysis tubing and four different solutes (5g total) in water to achieve either the greatest increase or decrease in mass in the “Diffusion and Osmosis Design Challenge.” (sp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) [CR3b] [CR6]

  • 5.  Students will model Mitosis, and design an experiment to look at the effects of the environment on Mitosis in the first part of Investigation 7 Cell Division: Mitosis and Meiosis (new). (sp 1, 5, 6, 7 ) [CR3b] [CR6] Supports Big Idea 3

  • 6.  Students will compare the different shapes of bacteria using microscopes and prepared slides, as well as viewing live Cyanobacteria for comparison.  Plaque samples will be collected and slides will be made to observe bacteria in your mouth in  “Bacteria and Cyanobacteria” Lab. (sp 6,7) [CR5]

  • 7.  Students will observe cross section slides of plants in the “Root, Stem and Leaf Cell” Lab, for comparison between other eukaryotic cells and bacteria. (sp 6, 7)

  • 8.http://wehitv/ (apoptosis and signal transduction), Students will watch this animation to observe apoptosis and a cells signal transduction pathway.

  • 9. Students will watch bacteria communicate in the following TED video. http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/bonnie_bassler_on_how_bacteria_communicate.htmlcll

  • 10.  Students will observe the phases of the cell cycle and calculate the percentage of time spent in each phase for a field of view on a prepared onion root tip microscope slide.  Exercise 3A.2 in Lab Three Mitosis and Meiosis.  [CR4c]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, lab reports, scientific paper, organized notebook, essays, water potential and diffusion problems.  [CR7], [CR8]

 

Unit 4: Enzymes and Metabolism

 

Big ideas: 2,4 [CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

  • 2A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter

  • 4B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

Chapters:  CHAPTERS: 8-An Introduction to Metabolism, 9-Cellular Respiration and Fermentation, 10-Photosynthesis.

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Through inquiry students will revisit productivity in an ecological system this time making connections to cell respiration, photosynthesis and metabolism at the molecular level in Investigation 10 Energy Dynamics (new) (sp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) [CR3b] [CR6] Supports Big Idea 4

  • 2.  “Design It Enzyme” Lab Students will design and execute an enzyme lab using the same method of titration from Lab Two Enzyme Catalysis through inquiry.  Groups will pick their variable and a class comparison will be made of all variables using a class Smartboard ®/excel® spreadsheet. (sp 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7)  [CR3b] [CR6]

  • 3.  Students will investigate the respiration of peas using Labquest and CO2 probes through inquiry.  They will calculate and compare the respiration rates of germinating and non-germinating seeds under different environmental conditions. Investigation 6 Cellular Respiration (new, using LabQuest) (sp 1, 2,  3, 6, 7) [CR 3b] [CR6] Supports Big Idea 2

  • 4.  Investigation 5 Photosynthesis The leaf disk assay will be completed as an inquiry lab.  Students will chose their variable and report back to the class in a modified scientific paper (new). (sp 1, 2,  3, 6, 7) [CR6] [CR8] Supports Big Idea 2.

  • 5.  Rf values will be calculated with the spinach used in the leaf disk lab.  A chromatogram will be created and analyzed in the “Chromatography lab.” (sp 1, 2,5) [CR3b]

  • 6.  Students will use a spectrophotometer to measure and graph the absorbance spectrum for the spinach they are using in the leaf disk lab.  “Absorbance spectrum lab.”  (sp 1,2,5) [CR3b]

  • 7.  Students will use duckweed and pH sensors with LabQuests to measure the rate of photosynthesis with their chosen variable.  Students will design the procedures, execute the lab and conclude in “Design It Photosynthesis” pH probes/Labquest and Duckweed. (sp 1, 3, 4, 5, 7) [CR6]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, lab reports, scientific paper, organized notebook.  [CR7] [CR8]

 

Unit 5: Molecular Genetics

 

Big ideas: 3,4  [CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

  • 3A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

  • 3B: Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.

  • 3C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

  • 4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

  • 4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Chapters: 13-Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles, 16-The Molecular Basis of Inheritance, 17-From Gene to Protein, 18-Regulation of Gene Expression, 20-Biotechnology, 21-Genomes and Their Evolution.

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students will cross, observe, and calculate the distance in map units between a specific gene and the centromere of a chromosome.  Live Sordaria cultures will be used. Investigation 7 Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis Sordaria Lab  (new), (sp 1,5,6,7) [CR3c] [CR6] Supports Big Idea 3

  • 2.  Students will build a model of a DNA molecule and replicate it.  Each lab group member must teach the other what they know about the process using their completed model. (sp 1, 3, 6, 7) [CR4c]

  • 3.  Students will build a model of a DNA molecule and transcribe and translate it into a protein.  Each lab group member must teach the other what they know about the process using their completed model. (sp 1, 3, 6, 7) [CR4c]

  • 4.  Students will investigate the process of transformation through a “Glow in the Dark” transformation lab.  A plasmid will be introduced into a bacterial culture and the presence of an antibiotic resistant gene and glow gene will be observed.  A transformation efficiency will be calculated.  Investigation 8 Biotechnology Bacterial Transformation (new).   (sp 1, 3, 5, 6,7) [CR6] Supports Big Idea 3

  • 5.  Students will collect samples from a crime scene in a “Who Done It” lab.  Gel electrophoresis will be used to separate and measure unknown sequences, comparing them to known sequencing of lambda DNA.  Semi-log graph paper will be used to extrapolate unknown base pairs from a known set of data.  Investigation 9 Biotechnology Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA (new). (sp 3, 6) [CR6] Supports Big Idea 3

  • 6.  Students will model a transformation using a paper restriction enzyme (creating sticky ends) to help insert a paper gene sequence into a paper bacterial genome.  “Paper Plasmids” activity. (sp 1, 3, 6, 7) [CR4c]   

  • 7.  Investigative Case: Silencing the Hedgehog Pathway Ch 10.  Students will read and answer questions about cell signaling pathways in part one.  Part two will be completed later when introducing phylogenetics.  (sp 1, 5, 6, 7)[CR4c]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, lab reports, organized notebook, investigative case, models of DNA replication, gene to protein model and paper plasmid model.  [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

 

 

Unit 6: Heredity

 

Big ideas:   3,4 [CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

  • 3A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

  • 3C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

  • 4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Chapters:  14-and the Gene Idea, 15-The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance.

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students will work on practice genetics problems.

  • 2.  Students will run a live sex-linked cross using Drosophila.  Punnett squares to figure the F1 and F2 generations will be made and chi-square analysis will be used to compare expected versus observed counts.  The null hypothesis will be either accepted or refuted.  “Drosophila” lab. (sp 1, 2, 5, 6, 7) [CR4c]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay and problems, genetics problems and organized notebook [CR8]

 

Unit 7: Evolution

 

Big ideas:   1,2,3,4[CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

  • 1A:  A change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.

  • 1B: Organisms are linked by lines of decent from common ancestry.

  • 1C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.

  • 1D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.

  • 2E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

  • 3C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

  • 4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects interactions with the environment.

Chapters:  22-Desent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life, 23-The Evolution of Populations, 24-The Origin of Species, 25-The History of Life on Earth, 26-Phylogeny and the Tree of Life.

 

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students will create a script of a conversation/debate between major evolution theorists.  This is a creative writing assignment.  “Evolution script.” [CR4a]

  • 2.  Students will work on practice Hardy-Weinberg problems. [CR4a]

  • 3.  Students will represent a population with four alleles for each member, reproducing and creating progeny for future generations.  Allele frequencies will be calculated under different environmental conditions and compared, using the Hardy-Weinberg equation.  “Hardy- Weinberg” activity. [CR4a]

  • 4.   Students will investigate through inquiry artificial selection using Wisconsin Fast Plants (Brassica) traits.  Investigation 1 Artificial Selection (new), (sp 1, 2, 5, 7) [CR6] Supports Big Idea 1

  • 5.  Students will work with practice AP evolution essays and phylogentic trees. [CR4a]

  • 6.  Students will investigate evolutionary relationships using the Basic Local Alignment Sequencing Tool. Investigation 3 Comparing DNA Sequences to Understanding Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST (new). (sp 1, 5) [CR6] [CR8] Supports Big Idea 1

  • 7.  Students will finish Investigative Case: Silencing the Hedgehog Pathway Ch 10 part 2. (sp 1, 5, 6, 7)[CR4c]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments:   Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay and problems, lab reports, organized notebook, evolution script, practice essays and practice phylogenetic trees. [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

 

Unit 8: Plant and Animal Structure and Function

 

Big ideas:   2, 3, 4[CR 2]

 

Connected to enduring understandings:

  • 2A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

  • 2C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

  • 2D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.

  • 2E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

  • 3E: Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.

  • 4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

Chapters: 38-Angiosprem Reproduction and Biotechnology, 39-Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals, 40-Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function, 43-The Immune System, 45-Hormones and the Endocrine System, 47-Animal Development, 48-Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling, 49-Nervous System.

 

Instructional Activities: 

  • 1.  Students will compare modifications of roots, stems and leaves from fruits and vegetables found at a grocery store in “Grocery Store Botany:  Modification of Plant Organs” Lab.  (sp 7)

  • 2.  Students will select an environmental factor and investigate the effect on the transpiration of bean plants through inquiry.  All variables will be presented by the students using the smartboard® and excel spreadsheets.  A comparison will be made of each variable by the class.   Investigation 11 Transpiration (new). (sp 1, 2, 4, 6 ,7)  [CR6] Supports Big Idea 4

  • 3.  Students will map the human brain both its anatomy and function by drawing and labeling a swim cap in “Anatomy of the Human Brain” activity. [CR4d]

  • 4.   Students will compare, through slides, preserved specimens and dissection, representative animals in the Animal Diversity I and Animal Diversity II Labs. They will describe similarities and differences in organs, germ layers, and body form and how this relates to their function and survival.  The sample phyla are the following: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, Echinodermata, Chordata.   (sp 1, 7) [CR3a][CR3b]

  • All content in each of the chapters noted in the targets/learning objectives, is covered through class discussion with either guided questions, Powerpoint® presentations, or both.

Assessments:   Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w essay, lab reports, scientific paper, organized notebook and portfolio. [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

PACING GUIDE

ADVANCED PLACEMENT BIOLOGY

 

BIG IDEAS:

1:  The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

2:  Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

3:  Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

4:  Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

 

INTRODUCTION:  First day expectations and course overview (Big Ideas, Science Practices)  Discussion “Science as a Process.”  http://www.gccaz.edu/biology/glacier/scientific_method/index.swf (3 DAYS)

UNIT 1:  ECOLOGY (13 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 51-Animal Behavior, 52-An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere, 53-Population Ecology, 54-Comminuty Ecology, 55-Ecosystmes and Restoration Ecology, 56-Conservation Biology and Global Change.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  51.1-51.4, 52.1-52.2, 53.1-53.6, 54.1-54.5, 55.1-55.5, 56.1,56.4, 56.5.

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

2.a.1 All living systems require constant input of free energy.

2.d.1 All biological systems from cells and organisms to populations, communities, and ecosystems are affected by complex biotic and abiotic interactions involving exchange of matter and free energy.

2.d.2 Homeotic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.

2.d.3 Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.

2.e.3 Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.

3.e.1 Individuals can act on information and communicate it to others.

4.a.5 Communities are composed of populations of organism that interact in complex ways.

4.a.6 Interactions among living systems and with their environment result in the movement of matter and energy.

4.b.3 Interactions between and within populations influence patterns of species distribution and abundance.

4.b.4 Distribution of local and global ecosystems changes over time.

4.c.4 The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  Dissolved Oxygen Lab and prelab, Fertilizer “Design It” lab, Behavior (taxis and Kinesis) “Design It” lab with pill bugs, Investigation 12 Fruit Fly Behavior(new), “Obituary” activity, Interpreting Scientific Paper 56.13, What Caused the Drastic Decline of the Illinois Greater Praire Chicken Population? Article 7 

 

ASSESSMENTS: Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, scientific paper, organized notebook, lab reports, and case study. [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

 

UNIT 2: BIOCHEMISTRY (6 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 3-Water and Life, 4-Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life, 5-The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules.

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  3.1-3.3, 4.1, 4.2, 5.1-5.5

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

2.a.3 Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.

4.a.1 The subcomponents of biological molecules and their sequence determine the properties of that molecule.

4.b.1 Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.

4.c.1 Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  Water essay, properties of water demonstration, “Testing For Unknown Carbohydrate Lab”, Phospholipid modeling.

 

ASSESSMENTS: Organic chemistry quizzes (summative and formative), unit test w/essay, formative water essay using grading rubric, organized notebook, lab report, and finished model. [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

 

UNIT 3: CELLS (21 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 6-A Tour of the Cell, 7-Membrane Structure and Function, 11-Cell Communication, 12-The Cell Cycle, 19-Viruses, 27-Bacteria and Archaea

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  6.2-6.5, 7.1-7.5, 11.1-11.4, 12.1-12.3, , 19.1-19.2, 27.1-27.2.

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

2.a.3 Organisms must exchange matter with the environment to grow, reproduce and maintain organization.

2.b.1 Cell membranes are selectively due to their structure.

2.b.2 Growth and dynamic homeostasis are maintained by the constant movement of molecules across membranes.

2.b.3 Eukaryotic cells maintain internal membranes that partition the cell into specialized regions.

2.e.1 Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism and these events are regulated b a variety of mechanisms.

2.e.2 Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

3.a.1 DNA and in some cases RNA is the primary source of heritable information.

3.a.2 In Eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via process that include the cell cycle and mitosis or meisosis plus fertilization.

3.b.1 Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

3.b.2 A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

3.c.2 Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

3.c.3 Viral replication results in genetic variation, and viral infection can introduce genetic variation into the hosts.

3.d.1 Cell communication processes share common features that reflect a shared evolutionary history.

3.d.2 Cells communicate with each other through direct contact with other via chemical signaling.

3.d.3 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception with cellular response.

3.d.4 Changes in signal transduction pathways can alter cellular response.

4.a.2 The structure and function of subcellular components, and their interactions, provide essential cellular processes.

4.a.3 Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expressionresult in specialization of cells, tissues and organs.

4.b.2 Cooperative interactions within organisms promote efficiency in the use of energy and matter.

 

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  “Modeling Limits to Cell Size”, “Off to the Cell Races Design Challenge”, Investigation 4 Diffusion and Osmosis (new), “Diffusion and Osmosis Design Challenge”, TED talk cell communication, Investigation 7 Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis (Sordaria), “Bacteria and Cyanobacteria” Lab, “Root ,Stem and Leaf Cell” Lab, http://wehitv/ (apoptosis and signal transduction), Exercise 3A.2 in Lab Three Mitosis and Meiosis, http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/bonnie_bassler_on_how_bacteria_communicate.html

 

ASSESSMENTS: Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, lab reports, scientific paper, organized notebook, essays, water potential and diffusion problems.  [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

UNIT 4: ENZYMES AND METABOLISM (24 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 8-An Introduction to Metabolism, 9-Cellular Respiration and Fermentation, 10-Photosynthesis.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  8.1-8.5, 9.1-9.5, 10.1-10.3.

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

2.a.1 All living systems require constant input of free energy.

2.a.2 Organisms capture and store free energy for use in biological processes.

4.b.1 Interactions between molecules affect their structure and function.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  Investigation 10 Energy Dynamics (new), “Design It Enzyme” Lab, Investigation 6 Cellular Respiration (new using LabQuest), Investigation 5 Photosynthesis (new), chromatography lab, absorbance spectrum lab, “Design It Photosynthesis” pH probes/Labquest and  Duckweed.

 

ASSESSMENTS:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, lab reports, scientific paper, organized notebook.  [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

UNIT 5: MOLECULAR GENETICS (26 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 13-Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles, 16-The Molecular Basis of Inheritance, 17-From Gene to Protein, 18-Regulation of Gene Expression, 20-Biotechnology, 21-Genomes and Their Evolution.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  13.1-13.4, 16.1, 16.2, 18.1-18.4, 17.1-17.6, 20.1, 20.2, 21.2, 21.5.

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

3.a.1 DNA, in some cases RNA is the primary source of heritable information.

3.a.2 In Eukaryotes, heritable information is passed to the next generation via processes that include the cell cycle and mitosis, or meiosis plus fertilization.

3.b.1 Gene regulation results in differential gene expression, leading to cell specialization.

3.b.2 A variety of intercellular and intracellular signal transmissions mediate gene expression.

3.c.1 Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

3.c.2 Biological systems have multiple processes that increase genetic variation.

4.a.3 Interactions between external stimuli and regulated gene expression result in specializations of cells, tissues and organs.

4.c.1 Variation in molecular units provides cells with a wider range of functions.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  Investigation 7 Cell Division Mitosis and Meiosis Sordaria Lab  (new), modeling DNA replication, modeling protein synthesis, Investigation 8 Biotechnology Bacterial Transformation (new), Investigation 9 Biotechnology Restriction Enzyme Analysis of DNA (new), Paper Plasmids, Investigative Case: Silencing the Hedgehog Pathway Ch 10.

ASSESSMENTS:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay, lab reports, organized notebook, investigative case, models of DNA replication, Gene to Protein model and paper plasmid model.  [CR7], [CR8]

 

UNIT 6: HEREDITY (12 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 14-and the Gene Idea, 15-The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  14.1-14.4, 15.1-15.5

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

3.a.3 The chromosomal basis of inheritance provides an understanding of the pattern of passage (transmission) of genes from parent to offspring.

3.a.4 The inheritance pattern of many traits cannot be explained by simple Mendelian genetics.

3.c.1 Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

4.c.2 Environmental factors influence the expression of the genotype in an organism.

4.c.4 The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES: Genetics problems, Sex-linked fruit fly cross F1s, chi-square analysis.

 

ASSESSMENTS:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w/essay and problems, genetics problems and organized notebook. [CR7], [CR8]

 

UNIT 7: EVOLUTION (20 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 22-Desent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life, 23-The Evolution of Populations, 24-The Origin of Species, 25-The History of Life on Earth, 26-Phylogeny and the Tree of Life.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  22.2, 22.3, 23.1-23.4, 24.1-24.4, 25.1-25.6, 26.1-26.3, 26.6.

 

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

1.a.1 Natural selection is a major mechanism of evolution.

1.a.2 Natural selection acts on phenotypic variations in populations.

1.a.3 Evolutionary change is also driven by random processes.

1.a.4 Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics.

1.b.1 Organisms share many conserved core processes and features that evolved and are widely distributed among organisms today.

1.b.2 Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are graphical representations (models) of evolutionary history that can be tested.

1.c.1 Speciation and extinction have occurred throughout the earth’s history.

1.c.2 Speciation may occur when two populations become reproductively isolated from each other.

1.c.3 Populations of organism continue to evolve.

1.d.1 There are several hypothesis about the natural origin of life on earth, each with supporting scientific evidence.

1.d.2 Scientific evidence from many different disciplines supports models of the origin of life.

2.e.2 Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

3.c.1 Changes in genotype can result in changes in phenotype.

4.c.3 The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics.

4.c.4 The diversity of species within an ecosystem may influence the stability of the ecosystem.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  Evolution script, Hardy-Weinberg problems, Hardy- Weinberg lab, Investigation 1 Artificial Selection (new), Investigation 3 Comparing DNA Sequences to Understanding Evolutionary Relationships with BLAST (new), practice AP essay questions-phylogentic trees,

 

ASSESSMENTS:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w essay and problems, lab reports, organized notebook, evolution script, practice essays and practice phylogenetic trees. [CR7], [CR8]

 

 

UNIT 8: PLANT AND ANIMAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION (24 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: 38-Angiosprem Reproduction and Biotechnology, 39-Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals, 40-Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function, 43-The Immune System, 45-Hormones and the Endocrine System, 47-Animal Development, 48-Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling, 49-Nervous System.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  38.1, 39.1-39.3, 39.5, 40.1, 40.2, 40.3, 40.4, 43.1-43.4, 45.1, 45.2, 47.3, 48.1-48.4,49.2.

ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE:

2.a.1 All living systems require constant input of free energy.

2.c.1 Organisms use feedback mechanisms to maintain their internal environments and respond to external environmental changes.

2.c.2 Organisms respond to changes in their external environments.

2.d.2 Homeostatic mechanisms reflect both common ancestry and divergence due to adaptation in different environments.

2.d.3 Biological systems are affected by disruptions to their dynamic homeostasis.

2.d.4 Plants and animals have a variety of chemical defenses against infections that affect dynamic homeostasis.

2.e.1 Timing and coordination of specific events are necessary for the normal development of an organism and these events are regulated by a variety of mechanisms.

2.e.2 Timing and coordination of physiological events are regulated by multiple mechanisms.

2.e.3 Timing and coordination of behavior are regulated by various mechanisms and are important in natural selection.

3.e.2 Animals have nervous systems that detect external and internal signals, transmit and integrate information and produce responses.

4.a.4 Organisms exhibit complex properties due to interactions between their constituent parts

 

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  “Grocery Store”Lab, Investigation 11 Transpiration (new), “Anatomy of the Human Brain” Lab, Animal Diversity I and Animal Diversity II, HHMI videos nervous system.

ASSESSMENTS:  Formative and summative quizzes, unit test w essay, lab reports, scientific paper, organized notebook and portfolio, [CR7], [CR8].

 

 

EXAM REVIEW (13 DAYS)

 

 

 

 

UNIT 9: PIG DISSECTION:  AFTER THE AP EXAM!!!!! (10 DAYS)

 

CHAPTERS: Pig Dissection Manual.

 

READING ASSIGNMENTS:  None

INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:  Dissection of skeletal, muscular, circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems.

ASSESSMENTS:  Bone, muscle (dorsal and ventral), circulatory, digestive, and respiratory system quizzes.

 

8 DAYS OF NON-INSTRUCTIONAL TIME.  EXAMPLES INLUDE SEMESTER EXAMS, HOW TO WRITE A PAPER DAY, EXTRA LAB DAYS, SCIENTIST IN RESIDENCE, AND ASSEMBLY DAYS.

 

TOTAL 180 DAYS

 

 

BIG IDEAS WITH ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS

Big Idea 1: The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.

  • 1A:  A change in the genetic makeup of a population over time is evolution.

  • 1B: Organisms are linked by lines of decent from common ancestry.

  • 1C: Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.

  • 1D: The origin of living systems is explained by natural processes.

Big Idea 2: Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

  • 2A: Growth, reproduction and maintenance of the organization of living systems require free energy and matter.

  • 2B: Growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis require that cells create and maintain internal environments that are different from external environments.

  • 2C: Organisms use feedback mechanisms to regulate growth and reproduction, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.

  • 2D: Growth and dynamic homeostasis of a biological system are influenced by changes in the system’s environment.

  • 2E: Many biological processes involved in growth, reproduction and dynamic homeostasis include temporal regulation and coordination.

Big Idea 3: Living systems store, retrieve, transmit and respond to information essential to life processes.

  • 3A: Heritable information provides for continuity of life.

  • 3B: Expression of genetic information involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.

  • 3C: The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.

  • 3D: Cells communicate by generating, transmitting and receiving chemical signals.

  • 3E: Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.

Big Idea 4: Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.

  • 4A: Interactions within biological systems lead to complex properties.

  • 4B: Competition and cooperation are important aspects of biological systems.

4C: Naturally occurring diversity among and between components within biological systems affects inte

Course Summary:

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